The province of Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn] which comprises an acreage of 121441 hectares, is situated in the South-Eastern part of Cochin-China. It is alluvial and its territory merely a vast plain without any forests or rising ground; it presents itself to your eyes as a large tract of land bordered in the East by the province of Giadinh [Gia Định], in the West by the province of Tanan [Tân An], which extends in gradual slopes from North-West to South-East, a distance of 60 km, from the boundaries of the province of Tay Ninh [Tây Ninh] to the Chinese Sea at the confluent of the Eastern Vamco [Vàm Cỏ] and the Soirap [Soài Rạp].
Owing to its situation, the climate, hot and moist, is similar to that of most of the other provinces of Cochin-China, and is slightly tempered in the Southern region by the neighbourhood of the sea. In one word, the climate is a healthy one and no endemical plague or illness whatever is to be found there.
The eastern Vamco [Vàm Cỏ], one of the important rivers of Cochin-China follows the southern fronteer of the province of Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn] in its whole lenght, being its natural limit with the provinces of Gocong [Gò Công] and Tanan [Tân An]. This large stream with a very regular current is navigable on all the part that it crosses the territory of the province. It gets on its left bank a large number of confluents. Besides the eastern Vamco [Vàm Cỏ] we must mention the rach Cangiuoc [Cần Giuộc] which enlarged by the song Ong Lon [Ông Lớn] and the rach Cau Tram [rạch Cầu Tràm] throws itself into the Chinese sea near the mouth of the Vamco [Vàm Cỏ]. The raeh Cangiuoc [Cần Giuộc] is united to the Soirap by the rach Vang [rạch Vàng] and the rach Cau Doi [rạch Cầu Đôi]. Moreover we must still mention the canal of Kinh Nuoc Mang [Kinh Nước Mặn] that units the eastern Vamco [Vàm Cỏ] to the Cangiuoc [Cần Giuộc] river. The boat- traffic on this channel is a very important one.
The railway from Saigon [Sài Gòn] to Mytho crosses the province of Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn] at its widest, following the Colonial route No. 16 from Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn] City to Benluc, where it crosses the Vamco [Vàm Cỏ] by a large iron bridge, the border of the province of Tanan [Tân An]. This railway has a daily service of four trains.
The administrative organisation of the province is the same as that of the other provinces of Cochin-China. It is directed by an administrator of the civil services, chief of the province, who is, at the same time, invested with the functions of President of the municipal commission of the town of Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn]. The Survey Offices which centralise all the provincial affairs are situated in the town of Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn] itself. Like the other provinces it disposes of an autonomous budget, proposed and voted by its provincial council, the administrator of which (who is the head of the province) is the controller of this budget which amounts, for the year 1925, to 355.240$.
The provincial council is composed of twelve members, or councillors, as representatives of the 12 districts; these councillors are elected by the leading men. This provincial council is partially reelected every two years.
At Phulam [Phú Lâm], a village situated 3 km from Cho Lon [Chợ Lớn], there is a boarding- school to which is joined a school for young girls. This establishment is directed by a teacher, assisted by a European tutor and tutoress. The manager of the sehool is also charged with the inspection of all the schools of the province. There are also elementary schools at Duc Hoa [Đức Hoà], Tan Phu Thuong [Tân Phú Thượng], Goden [Gò Đen], Cangiuoc [Cần Giuộc], Rachkien [Rạch Kiến], Canduoc [Cần Đước] and other places, dispersed over the greater part of the villages, to which a Free School and four congregation schools have to be added.
The sanitary regulations of the province are under the control of a European physician, assisted by an assistant and by 8 native infirmary attendants. Hospitals and maternity homes are installed at Cangio [Cần Giờ], Canduoc [Cần Đước], Rachkien [Rạch Kiến], Duc Hoa [Đức Hoà], Phulam [Phú Lâm], and in the chief town.
Numerous periodical vaccinations are effected in the villages. The State is distributing gratuitously quinine to the rural population in order to fight against marsh-fever. There are certified midwives in central districts who attend confinements at private houses as well as at maternity homes.
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